–Instrumentation Engineering (IN)–
–Instrumentation Engineering (IN)–
Candidate qualifying for GATE Exam 2021/2022 in Instrumentation Engineering stream, can secure an admission in IITs/IISc and explore career opportunity in PSU Jobs. Aspirants of Gate Instrumentation i.e. those who are appearing for GATE 2021 Instrumentation Engineering Exam, are required to understand syllabus thoroughly before starting preparation.
Engineering Mathematics
1. Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, consistency and rank, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
2. Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
3. Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), second order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial differential equations: variable separable method.
4. Analysis of complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, solution of integrals.
5. Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode, standard deviation and variance; random variables: discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions.
6. Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis.
Electricity and Magnetism
 Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane andspherical charge distributions, Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot‐Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits, Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.
Electrical Circuits and Machines
1. Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; vi relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductance and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC
2. Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems.
3. Peak, average and rms values of ac quantities; apparent, active and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements. transient analysis of RLC circuits with ac excitation.
4. Oneport and twoport networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open, and short circuit parameters.
5. Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency; Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torquespeed characteristics, noload and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines.
Signals and Systems
Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and ztransforms; transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse
1. Discrete time system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters.
Control Systems
 Feedback principles, signal flow graphs, transient response, steadystateerrors, Bode plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, rootloci, design of lead, lag and leadlag compensators, statespace representation of systems; timedelay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; onoff, P, PI, PID, cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers, tuning of PID controllers and sizing of control valves.
Analog Electronics
 Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers.Characteristics of ideal and practical operational amplifiers; applications of opamps: adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, difference amplifier, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters, oscillators, signal generators, voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop, sources and effects of noise and interference in electronic circuits.
Digital Electronics
 Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger,multivibrators, sequential circuits, flipflops, shift registers, timers and counters; sampleandhold circuit, multiplexer, analogtodigital (successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigmadelta) and digitaltoanalog converters (weighted R, R2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of number systems, Embedded Systems: Microprocessor and microcontroller applications, memory and inputoutput interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems, basics of distributed control systems (DCS) and programmable logic controllers (PLC).
Measurements
SI units, standards (R,L,C, voltage, current and frequency), systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty – accuracy and precision, propagation of errors,
1. Bridges: Wheatstone, Kelvin, Megohm, Maxwell, Anderson, Schering and Wien for measurement of R, L, C and frequency, Qmeter. Measurement of voltage, current and power in single and three phase circuits; ac and dc current probes; true rms meters, voltage and current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements, digital voltmeter, digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding.
Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation
 Resistive, capacitive, inductive, piezoelectric, Hall effect sensors and associated signalconditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (variable head, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement. 420 mA twowire transmitter.
Communication and Optical Instrumentation
 Amplitude and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon’s sampling theorem, pulse code modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude, phase, frequency, quadrature amplitude, pulse shift keying for digital modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photodiode, light dependent resistor, square law detectors and their characteristics; interferometer: applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing. UVVIS Spectro photometers, Mass spectrometer.
Change in syllabus 2021
Removed topic  Added topic  Removed topic  Added topic 

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: NA Calculus: NA Differential equations: NA Analysis of complex variables: NA Probability and Statistics: NA Numerical Methods: NA 
Section 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: NA Differential equations: NA Analysis of complex variables: NA Probability and Statistics: NA Numerical Methods: NA 
Section 2: Electricity and Magnetism: NA

Section 2: Electricity and Magnetism
Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot‐Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits, Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations. 
Section 2: Electrical Circuits: NA

Section 3: Electrical Circuits and Machines
transient analysis of RLC circuits with ac excitation. Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency; Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torquespeed characteristics, noload and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines. 
Section 3: Signals and Systems:NA  Section 4: Signals and Systems:NA 
Section 4: Control Systems:NA

Section 5: Control Systems: tuning of PID controllers and sizing of control valves.  Section 5: Analog Electronics: NA

Section 6: Analog Electronics: sources and effects of noise and interference in electronic circuits. 
Section 6: Digital Electronics:NA

Section 7: Digital Electronics
Embedded Systems: basics of distributed control systems (DCS) and programmable logic controllers (PLC). 
Section 7: Measurements
PMMC, MI and dynamometer type instruments;

Section 8: Measurements
standards (R,L,C, voltage, current and frequency), 
Section 8: Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation: NA  Section 9: Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation: 420 mA twowire transmitter.  Section 9: Communication and Optical Instrumentation:NA  Section 10: Communication and Optical Instrumentation: quadrature amplitude, square law detectors and their characteristics; UVVIS Spectro photometers, Mass spectrometer 