–Electronics & Communication Engineering (EC)–
–Electronics & Communication Engineering (EC)–
Candidate qualifying for GATE Exam 2021/2022 in Electronics and Communication Engineering stream, can secure an admission in IITs/IISc and explore career opportunity in PSU Jobs. Aspirants of Gate Electronics and Communication i.e. those who are appearing for GATE 2021 Electronics and Communication Engineering Exam, are required to understand syllabus thoroughly before starting preparation.
Engineering Mathematics
Probability and Statistics
 Mean, median, mode, standard deviation, combinatorial probability, probability distributions, binomial distribution, Poisson distribution,exponential distribution, normal distribution, joint and conditional probability.
Calculus
 Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima,multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series.
Differential equations
 First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, methods ofsolution using variation of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations, variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems.
Complex Analysis
 Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, sequences, series, convergence tests, Taylor and Laurent series,residue theorem.
Linear Algebra
 Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, rank, solution of linear equationsexistence and uniqueness.
Vector Analysis
 Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss’s, Green’s and Stokes’ theorems.
Networks, Signals and Systems
Circuit analysis
 Node and mesh analysis, superposition, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, reciprocity.
1. Sinusoidal steady state analysis: phasors, complex power, maximum power transfer.
2. Time and frequency domain analysis of linear circuits: RL, RC and RLC circuits, solution of network equations using Laplace transform. Linear 2port network parameters, wyedelta transformation.
3. Continuoustime signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform, sampling theorem and applications.
4. Discretetime signals: DTFT, DFT, ztransform, discretetime processing of continuoustime signals.
5. LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeroes, frequency response, group delay, phase delay.
Electronic Devices
 Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, equilibrium carrier concentration, direct and indirect bandgapsemiconductors. Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, generation and recombination of carriers, Poisson and continuity equations. PN junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell.
Analog Circuits
 Diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers.
 BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, ac coupling, small signal analysis, frequencyresponse. Current mirrors and differential amplifiers. Opamp circuits: Amplifiers, summers, differentiators, integrators, active filters, Schmitt triggers and oscillators.
Digital Circuits
1. Number representations: binary, integer and floatingpoint numbers.
2. Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders.
3. Sequential circuits: latches and flipflops, counters, shiftregisters, finite state machines, propagation delay, setup and hold time, critical path delay.
4. Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs.
5. Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM.
6. Computer organization: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, datapath and control unit, instruction pipelining.
Control Systems
 Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient andsteadystate analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; RouthHurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and rootlocus plots; Lag, lead and laglead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.
Communications
1. Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems.
2. Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers.
3. Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem.
4. Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK, QAM), bandwidth, intersymbol interference, MAP, ML detection, matched filter receiver, SNR and BER. Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes, CRC.
Electromagnetics
 Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions,wave equation, Poynting vector.
 Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth.
 Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, Sparameters, Smith chart. Rectangular and circular waveguides, light propagation in optical fibers, dipole and monopole antennas, linear antenna arrays.
Change in syllabus 2021
Removed topic  Added topic  Removed topic  Added topic 

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics Linear Algebra: NA Calculus: NA Differential Equations: NA Vector Analysis: NA Complex Analysis: NA Numerical Methods: Solution of nonlinear equations, single and multistep methods for differential equations, convergence criteria.
Probability and Statistics: Correlation and regression analysis. 
Section 1: Engineering Mathematics Linear Algebra: NA Calculus: NA Differential Equations: NA Vector Analysis: NA Complex Analysis: sequences, series, convergence tests, Probability and Statistics: NA 
Section 2: Networks, Signals and Systems Network theorems: driving point and transfer functions; State equations for networks. LTI systems: parallel and cascade structure, digital filter design techniques. 
Section 2: Networks, Signals and Systems Circuit analysis: reciprocity, complex power, maximum power transfer. LTI systems: NA 
Section 3: Electronic Devices Carrier transport: Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography and twintub CMOS process. 
Section 3: Electronic Devices Equilibrium carrier concentration, direct and indirect bandgap semiconductors. Carrier transport: NA 
Section 4: Analog Circuits Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes,
BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multistage, differential, feedback, power and operational; Simple Active filters; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, singletransistor and opamp configurations; Function generators, waveshaping circuits and 555 timers; Voltage reference circuits; Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation.

Section 4: Analog Circuits Current mirrors and differential amplifiers. Amplifiers, summers, differentiators, integrators, active filters, Schmitt triggers and oscillators. 
Section 5: Digital Circuits Combinatorial circuits: PLAs; 8bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Section 5: Digital Circuits Sequential circuits: propagation delay, setup and hold time, critical path delay. Computer organization: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, datapath and control unit, instruction pipelining. 
Section 6: Control Systems: NA

Section 6: Control Systems: NA 
Section 7: Communications Analog communications: circuits for analog communications; Digital communications: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK), QAM, calculation of bandwidth, Timing and frequency synchronization, intersymbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA. 
Section 7: Communications Digital communications: bandwidth, intersymbol interference. Fundamentals of CRC. 
Section 8: Electromagnetics Electrostatics; Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cutoff frequencies, dispersion relations; Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, Basics of radar; 
Section 8: Electromagnetics Rectangular and circular waveguides, dipole and monopole antennas. 